The military reform and transformation which started in 16th century affected weapon and battle order of Ottomans and Mamelukes just like many other armies. The Ottoman Empire, which became a rising force in Anatolia, the Balkans and the Middle East, organized military expeditions on Iran and Egypt in order to eliminate the possibility of getting attacked from the east while conducting military expeditions to the west. The Ottoman Empire, which kept up with modern fire weapon technology on the battlefields in the military expeditions conducted, developed new technologies and production methods which would harmonize fire weapons with its army. However, in view of the Ottomans following these developments, it would be a big mistake to think that the Mameluke State, which faced the threat of Portugal and Rhodes was indifferent to firearms. Although the Ottoman Army used cannons and rifles for offensive purposes in the attacks towards the West, the Mamelukes, which was a regional state, used said weapons for defensive purposes and established their battle organization within this direction. Another issue which is not addressed much in existing works is that concept of intelligence was the primary factor which won the Ottomans the war. As a matter of fact, Selim I learned about the plans of Tuman Bay in Cairo thanks to the intelligence network. Apart from all these developments, when we look at the state organizations of two states rather than their militaries, it can be seen that Ottomans had a more centralist structure compared to the Mamelukes. In contrast with the fact that the Mameluke Sultans did not have the political authority to oppose the responses of powerful Mameluke commanders, and the army organization of Mamelukes being a military caste system (the cavalries rejecting to use inventions of infidels), Ottoman Sultans cherished an absolutely centralist policy, had the power to use their influence and authority on Seyfiye and Ilmiye classes (military and administrative), thus, equipped all units of the military with the weapons they deemed fit and administrative class gave fatwas in line with this, thus, Ottoman Army outmatched the Mameluke Army in Marj Dabıq and Ridaniya battles.
Keywords: Centralization, Intelligence, Ridaniya, Marj Dabiq, Fire Weapons