The aim of this research is to examine and evaluate indepth the structure of matriarchal society in respect to cultural history from primitive societies to Seljuks in regions of Mesopotamia, Middle Asia and Anatolia. From primitive societies to the Byzantine period in Mesopotamia; from Shamanism - the archaic religion of the Turks – to Seljuks in Anatolia were researched for traces of matriarchal society structure. The female is the link of the chain we call survival and continuation of humankind through descentans. Therefore her role in history must be understood well. To understand the role and activities of women in past socities can shed better light in understanding the women’s role in today’s modern social structure. During this research, dicsiplenes from archeology, history of religion, art history and etc. were utilized for anlysis of content. The value placed on women, women’s role in governance, military role, belief, marriage, gender discrimination, motherhood, divorce, inheritance, beauty and entertainment are topics in evaluating the results of this research, which covered matriarchal culture in Mesopotamia, Middle Asia and Anatolia.
Key Words: Society, culture, matriarchal, woman.