The hypotheses of politics, developed throughout the history of civilization, are the products of conflicts among social classes about how to manage the community. Since the Mesopotamian civilization, they were the lower classes, which comprised of respectively slaves, peasants, and laborers, and who have had the least say in development and implementation of various political hypotheses. It should be considered natural that the social classes, which were deprived of power and capital, were in a historical passiveness. However, societies based on labor, have such determinant roles throughout the history of civilization: The implementation of the hypotheses of powerful social classes was actualized purely and simply by the support of the lower social classes. Social classes, which could provide the support of the slaves, peasants, and laborers, could downgrade the other powerful classes and actualize their own political hypotheses. The extent of this support was not the ideals but primarily the material. The societal structure is primarily formed on a material reality basis. While the disciplines that provided political participation of the lower classes and increased their welfare could find wide support, the disciplines that excluded economically and politically lower classes declined and were defeated by the opposing disciplines. This article includes exemplification of the abovementioned thesis via five social events throughout the history of the civilization. Roman civilization, the Protestant reform, French, Russian, Iranian and Cuba revolutions were handled as the most conspicuous examples. The complete literature-review-based analysis method was adopted.
Keywords: Political Sociology, Historical Materialism, Social Change