Communities and societies exist and develop based on financial realities. The reason that socio-economic reality explains societal life is that humans are biological organisms. Thus, determining societal events in terms of science is possible by cross-examining them with financial realities. The aim of the study is to explain the class based dimensions of the Turkish modernization movement that started in the 18th century. The majority of the studies conducted during the 20th century on sociological analysis of the Turkish modernization movement has made two mistakes. Firstly, they dealt with the issues only surrounding the relationships among the superior institutions of society and they generally ignored the financial and class-related dimensions of the movement. Secondly, they remained aloof to the universality principle of modern human values like secularism and humanity. However, any innovation that is in favor of humanity, that develops and cares about humanity, is the common product of all humanity whatever its geographical roots come from. It is common and necessary that any social structure pattern itself on a more developed civilizations’ humanity values. Also, economic and class variables are to be dealt in any sociological assessment of the Turkish modernization movement’s current success and failures. This study is completely based on the literature review. The study findings suggest that the Turkish modernization process was led by the class that became rich by means of national and international trades, that the principal variable which essentially influenced the Turkish modernization process was firstly the international and secondly national bourgeoisie, and that large social communities that survive on the basis of labor were not involved and have a voice in shaping this movement.
Keywords: Turkish modernization, Social Change, Social Classes, Historical Materialism